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“AMSAT” diagnostic system utilisation in the condition estimation of the organism at playing sports

Candidate of Medical Science, associate professor Ruev V.V.,
Doctor of Medical Science Udin B.D.
MPGU, Moscow, Russia.
МTC «KOVERT», Moscow, Russia.

Readiness of the sportsman for start, physical activities (trainings) is a readiness to pass from rest to work during the shortest time, to reach optimum working efficiency, to pass from one kind or one work intensity level to another, providing demanded quality of physical activity.

For temperature homeostasis regulation before performance of physical exercises (training and especially competitions) the most important is limbering-up, i.e. pre-starting preparation locomotorium tissues and cardiorespiratory systems.

Limbering-up promotes speed increase of enzymatic reactions and metabolism intensity; acceleration of blood circulation, lymphokinesis and heat regulation. Thus the ability of conjunctive tissues (especially muscles, ligaments, sinews) to stretching increases. Irritability and lability of skeletal muscles also increases. Importance of limbering-up for activity of functional systems, which provide aerobic productivity of an organism, is especially great. Temperature increase promotes more intensive dissociation of oxyhemoglobin in tissues. Cardiac rhythm during the limbering-up can increase up to 160-180 strokes\minute.

Depending on rate, rhythm and duration, the limbering-up can influence on psychoemotional condition of the sportsman. CNS reaction on limbering-up is estimated as a following condition:
1) alertness;
2) pre-starting fever;
3) pre-starting apathy.


Pre-starting apathy is an unhealthy condition - the sportsman is badly trained, or has suffered any disease and is in the bad athletic condition.

Speed and output efficiency in the beginning of work depends on quality of limbering-up and on the character of a pre-starting condition, and also on presence or absence of a “dead point” which arises at not enough prepared sportsmen as a result of impellent and vegetative functions discoordination.

During this period you can observe efficiency slump. It increases only after strong-willed overcoming of a “dead point” when the “second wind” opens, or as a result of work intensity reduction.

These processes define the degree of expressiveness and duration of a steady condition on which approach speed and development depth of exhaustion depends, that causes features of restoration processes.

Physiological reserves of an organism are provided with the certain anatomico-physiological and functional features of organism structure and activity, significant intensification of the heart activity, increase of the general intensity of the blood flow, pulmonary ventilation and intensification of the activity of other bodies and systems.

At present time, for formation of sportsmen health estimation methodology the following elements are considered:
- The functional condition of an organism;
- The functional reserves of an organism;
- The level the and harmonicity of physical development;
- The level of nonspecific resistency and immune protection;
- Individual personal qualities and abilities of the person.

Definition of functional system components of an organism during the various periods of the training and competitive period is possible during the inspections in the express train-mode with the use of «АМSАТ» functional and segmentary prenosological express-estimation of the functional condition of an organism.

Adaptation in sports is a set of the physiological reactions underlying the adaptation of an organism to changes of surrounding conditions and directed on preservation of relative constancy of its internal environment, i.e. the homeostasis.

The basic destination of the «АМSАТ» system consists in search of changes of the disturbed homeostasis in the organism of the sportsman, in search of organs and systems of organs with the changed function, and also organs and systems with the disturbed somatovegetative regulation.

Main principle of work of the «АМSАТ» complex is the measurement of integrated electric conductivity of the internal environment of an organism with the use of two expert systems: «electroconductivity of biological tissues» and «colloidal shift».


Sports training, from the physiological point of view, represents long-term organism adaptation process to requirements which are presented with the selected kind of sports.

When using the "АМSАТ" system with the persons that suffer increased physical activity, data of several inspections are analyzed:


1 inspection - last inspection of the current day (better in the evening before going to sleep).
2 inspection - the first inspection in the working day before physical activity (base inspection).
3 inspection - is spent directly after limbering-up.
4 inspection - is spent after the maximal loading.
5 inspection - is spent in 20-25 minutes after loading (during this period the person must rest - the restoration phase). If the condition parameters of an organism in the fifth inspection are worse than parameters in the fourth it is necessary to continue inspections with a 15 - 20 minutes interval.

Results comparison of the various inspections allows receiving the information about the condition of an organism (organs and systems) at various stages of the training process:

• Character of the “late restoration” is defined by comparison of the 2 and 1 inspection results and characterizes stability of adaptable steadiness of an organism to physical activities;
• Output efficiency is defined by comparison of the 3 and 2 inspection results, and also characterizes adequacy of physical activities on organism during output and can testify the efficiency of the person;
• Efficiency of training is determined by comparison of 4 and 3 inspection results, characterizes adaptation of organism to physical activities;
• Reaction of “early restoration” is the complete set of physiological, biochemical and structural changes which provide transition of organism from the operating level to the initial (pre-operating) condition is united by the restoration concept.


Excessive muscular work leads to overfatigue and overstrain. Insufficient impellent activity (hypodynamia) leads to physical detraining. Sharply expressed extremes are accompanied by stress.

The content of the training, its structure should change periodically in connection with the principle of cyclic recurrence.
In sports the maximum achievement is allocated in two periods of trainings:

1) preparatory,
2) competitive.

Duration of these periods depends on age of the sportsman, his qualification, experience and other parameters.
In the preparatory period the main task is to develop endurance, speed- strength qualities, etc. Training apparatus’, various devices and weight are used.

In the competitive period training is characterized moderate and short, usually is spent in the morning. In some kinds of sports the training is not spent in the competition day (cross-country skiing, bicycle races, etc.). Besides after cross-country skiing, for example, the sportsman does some exercises like easy run and special attention gain extension exercises.

Training promotes development of physical qualities: endurance,
strength, speed, dexterity.


Exhaustion – is a special kind of functional condition of the person, temporarily appearing under influence of long or hard work and leading to its efficiency decrease.

The exhaustion is shown in reduction of strength and endurance of muscles, deterioration of movement coordination, in increase of spent energy at performance of the same works, in deceleration of information processing speed, memory impairment, concentration process difficulty and attention switching of and so forth.

Criteria of exhaustion are changes of quantitative and quality work indicators, and also physical functions during the work or in reply to presentation of special tests.

Effective means of exhaustion prevention at any kinds of activity is increase of work motivation and physical readiness.


Weariness is a subjective sensation of exhaustion. Weariness reflects set of the physical, biochemical and psycho-physiological function changes arising during long or hard work. It causes the desire of either stopping the work, or lowering the loading.

Fatigue is a property of whole organism or its separate parts to be the object of exhaustion.

Depth of the developing exhaustion at the same loading depends on degree of adaptation of the person to the certain kind of activity and his training level, physical and mental condition, levels of motivation and neuro-emotional condition. At trainings of any weight (intensity), and also brainwork fatigue grows the same as lowers the level of the general physical efficiency.


Intellectual exhaustion is characterized by reduction of intellectual work efficiency, relaxation of attention (mainly, it is difficult to the person to concentrate), deceleration of thinking.

Physical exhaustion is shown by disturbance of muscle functions: strength, speed, accuracy, coordination and rhythm of movement reduction, etc. Efficiency decreases.


Chronic exhaustion is characterized by expressed dystrophic and destructive changes in the part of muscular tissues. One of the reasons of their occurrence is hypoxia or disturbance of locomotorium tissue microcirculation.

The chronic exhaustion, loss of muscle elasticity (the hypertone takes place, muscular misbalance, etc.), muscular pains, incidental muscle spasms are the assuming factor of locomotorium trauma occurrence.

At chronic exhaustion there is an accumulation of suboxidated metabolism products in tissues, and this, in turn, leads to changes of colloidal tissue structure, to disturbances of blood circulation, that is shown by clinically painful sensations and increased sensitivity of corresponding muscles.

In this phase of colloidal reactions organic changes in muscles are not spotted yet and their returning to norm can be easily realized.

Irrational application of physical activities (trainings) can lead to functional overloads of locomotorium tissues, and in the subsequent if trainings will be spent in the same mode, they will promote occurrence of traumas and diseases of locomotorium.


Overfatigue and overtrain are the symptoms of a neurosis which is characterized by presence of somatic and vegetative disturbances.

Overfatigue and overtrain are characterized by deterioration of psychological and physical condition, reduction of sport and general efficiency. In most cases overfatigue and overtrain accumulate on each other, giving a symptom complex of organism activity disturbances.

Overfatigue is shown first of all in deterioration of sport efficiency, the termination of achievement growth, despite of intensive trainings.

The general efficiency and sleep are getting worse, hyperhidrosis intensifies at performance of physical activity, the tachycardia, the urea in the blood increases, changes on an electrocardiogram quite often take place, respiratory muscles function parameter, vital capacity of lungs and other parameters decreases.

Overfatigue breaks coordination of interaction between the brain cortex, underlying departments of nervous system and internal organs.

Overtrain develops at regular presentation of very difficult impellent and tactical tasks to the sportsman combined with greater physical activities and insufficient rest.

Excitability, instability of mood, unwillingness to train, slackness can be observed at overtrain. Prevalence of inhibitory processes, in turn, slows down the regenerative processes.

Deterioration of sport achievements and reduction of sport efficiency is the basic symptom of overtrain. Sportsmen of high qualification constantly train on the background of chronic exhaustion, therefore traumas often occur and locomotorium diseases become aggravated.


Adaptation processes that are connected with training essentially vary depending on its content. There can be an adaptation of skeletal muscles (metabolic changes or increase of the cross-section area), heart or respiratory system (increase of the maximal respiratory ability) or nervous system (intra-and intermuscular coordination). The most part of these changes is very essential for efficiency increase.

To estimate the adaptation degree, it is necessary to know the initial train condition.

The degree (condition) of adaptation to physical work has individual character. At the same person it depends on character and size (volume) of physical activity.

In dynamics of adaptable changes at the sportsmen the four stages are allocated:

- physiological stress (sport efficiency is unstable);
- adaptednesses (functional shifts determined at this time are not beyond physiological variations, and efficiency of the sportsmen is stable and even increases);
- dysadaptation (the dysadaptation stage on its pathophysiological bases appreciably corresponds to the overtrain condition of the sportsmen);
- readaptation (reduction of the training level and return of some parameters to initial sizes).


Health of the sportsmen is represented as the complete multivariate dynamic condition providing certain level of viability and vital activity due to properties of self-control and adaptibility to physical activities.

The development degree of the abilities to adaptation defines the level of the stability of the sportsman and finally - health.